Rubidium element symbol Rb, an alkali rare metal silver, a Group IA metal in the periodic table, the atomic number 37, atomic weight 85.4678, cubic, Common valence of +1.

The cockroaches are very scattered in the earth's crust, and no simple strontium minerals have been found so far. It is often present in small amounts in lithium mica and biotite. Lithium mica has a content of 3.75%, which is the main source of radon. Although the content of strontium in carnallite is not high, the reserves are large. The seawater contains about 0.121 g/ton of strontium, and many mineral waters and salt lake brines also contain more strontium. China Yichun lithium mica contains Rb 2 O 1.2% to 1.4%, and Sichuan Zigong underground brine also contains antimony.

First, the invention of é“·

At the beginning of the fifties of the nineteenth century, he lived in the city of Hamburg German chemist Bunsen (Robert Bunsen), invented a lamp burning coal gas, which now Bunsen burner in our chemical laboratory also everywhere visible. He tried to put the various substances in the high temperature flame of the lamp to see if they had changed in the flame.

The change is really there! The flame was almost colorless, but when the sodium-containing substance was put in, the flame turned yellow; when the potassium-containing substance was put in, the flame turned purple again... The experiment was repeated many times to convince Bunsen. He has found a new method of chemical analysis. This method does not require complicated test equipment, does not require test tubes, measuring cups and reagents, but knows what chemical composition is contained in the substance based on the color signal emitted by the substance in a high temperature, colorless flame.

However, further experiments have annoyed Bunsen, because the flames of some substances are almost bright with the same color, and they cannot be clearly distinguished by the naked eye.

At this time, Gustav Robert Kirchhopp, who studies the physics in the same city, is determined to help his life. He thought that since the sunlight can be decomposed into a spectrum consisting of seven colors through the prism, why can't this simple glass block be used to distinguish the color signals emitted by the substances in the high temperature flame?

Kirchhoff told his own thoughts and gave him an instrument he had developed, the spectroscope.

They put various substances on the flame, turning the matter into a hot vapor. The light emitted by the vapor, after passing through the beam splitter, is broken down into a spectrum of lines consisting of scattered colored lines. What is the element in the vapor component, the color spectrum of this element is different from other elements in the line spectrum: there are two red lines in the spectrum of potassium vapor, one purple line; two sodium vapors are very The near yellow line; the spectrum of lithium is composed of a bright red line and a darker orange line; copper vapor has several spectral lines, the brightest of which is two yellow lines and one orange line, and so on.

This has given people a reliable way to explore and analyze the composition of matter - spectral analysis. Spectral analysis is highly sensitive and can "perceive" which element of a few millionths of a gram or even a billionth of a gram.

Beamsplitters expand people's horizons. You put the beam splitter in the aisle of the light, and the line will tell you without error what the chemical elements of the substance that emits the light are.

I have studied a lot of substances with a spectroscope. In 1861, he discovered an unknown element that produced a red spectral line in a mineral water and lithium mica ore. This newly discovered element is named after the color of its spectral line (in Latin, the meaning of é“· is dark red).

The discovery of é“· is the first victory in the analysis of the elemental composition of matter by spectroscopic analysis.

Second, nature and use

Metal ruthenium has a very low melting point, is soft and malleable.

The use of tantalum is roughly the same as that of tantalum, but the sensitivity and range of use of the neon battery and photocathode are slightly inferior. An alloy of cerium and potassium, sodium, and cerium may be used to remove residual gases from the high vacuum system. Rubidium silver iodide (RbAg 4 I 5) is a good ionic conductor, a battery as a solid electrolyte. The characteristic resonant frequency of é“· is 6835 MHz and can be used as a time standard. The cesium atomic clock is characterized by its small size, light weight and low power requirements. A magnetometer made of helium bubbles, measuring from 15,000 to 80,000 gamma (1 to gamma of 10 to 9 Tesla). Cerium oxide can be used to adjust the density and refractive index of optical glass and can be used to produce photosensitive glass and light-colored glass. Cerium nitrate can also be used as a flux for chemically tempered glass to increase the tensile strength of the glass. Cast aluminum alloy was added from 0.01% to 1% of rubidium, it can improve its mechanical properties. 0.01% to 0.5% of cerium is added to the molten copper, and a copper powder having a large surface area and good performance can be obtained by a spray method. In many organic and inorganic synthesis, Rb 2 O can be used in place of K 2 O as a component of the cocatalyst. Bismuth salts are used in pharmaceuticals.

铷 and other alkali metals can be made into a liquid alloy with a very low melting point, such as 13% Rb - 87% Cs, eutectic -39 ° C; 15% K - 85% Rb, eutectic -34 ° C; 8% Na - 92% Rb, eutectic - 5.2 ° C. Bismuth can also form compounds with many non-transition metals.

Due to its high activity, metal ruthenium must be produced, used, stored and transported in a device that is tightly insulated from air. Rubber containers can be used below 80 °C; glass, quartz , brass, aluminum or ceramic containers can be used below 200 °C; soft steel, stainless steel, nickel alloy or nickel containers are required for 700-1000 °C.

The United States and Japan consume tons of bismuth and its compounds each year. In 1980, the price of bismuth was 662 US dollars / kg, and the compound of bismuth was 143 ~ 157 US dollars / kg.

Third, the extraction of bismuth compounds

The extraction of the ruthenium compound includes a plurality of complex salt precipitation methods, a solvent extraction method, and an ion exchange method. China Zigong recovered from brines rubidium using ammonium phosphomolybdate precipitation. After the brine is subjected to strontium salt and potassium precipitation, the mother liquor contains about 2.8 to 3.5 g/liter of strontium. Chlorine gas is introduced to oxidize organic matter or other reducing substances, and an excess of 50% ammonium phosphomolybdate powder is added, and the reaction is carried out at room temperature as follows: (NH 4 ) 3H 4 [P(Mo 2 O 7 ) 6 ]·xH 2 O+3RbCl─→Rb 3 H 4 [P(Mo 2 O 7 ) 6 ]·xH 2 O↓+3NH 4 Cl

Precipitating the potassium adsorbed in the precipitate with a mixed solution of 0.01 molar ammonium nitrate and 0.3 molar nitric acid; then removing the cerium from the phosphomolybdate with 9 molar ammonium nitrate into the solution; Ammonium molybdate is returned for use. The enriched cerium solution is evaporated to dryness and calcined at 300 to 350 ° C to obtain cerium nitrate having a purity of more than 80%, which is a raw material for further preparing cerium salt. The method for extracting the ruthenium compound from the lithium mother liquor of the lithium mica-lime method is to first introduce carbon dioxide into the mixed carbonate solution rich in potassium, cesium and strontium to precipitate potassium carbonate (KHCO 3 ). Hydrochloric acid and a slightly excess solution of tin tetrachloride hydrochloride were added to precipitate bismuth chlorostannate (Cs 2 SnCl 6 ). An excess of tin tetrachloride was added to form a precipitate of bismuth chlorostannate (Rb 2 SnCl 6 ). The hydrazine can also be extracted from an alkali metal carbonate solution or a chloride solution using a BMBMP (a substituted phenol) extractant.

The metal ruthenium can be obtained by reducing the ruthenium chloride with calcium by a metal thermal reduction method and reducing cesium carbonate with magnesium or calcium carbide.

Fourth, industrial indicators

There are no separate industrial minerals, often dispersed in lithium mica, iron lithium mica, garnet and salt mines, as well as mineral water. General industrial requirements are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 General industrial requirements for antimony ore

Deposit type

Boundary grade 1

(Machine selection)%

Industrial grade 1

(Machine selection)%

Alkaline feldspar granites and granitic pegmatites containing lithium mica ore


0.1 to 0.2

Salt lake deposit


1 grade refers to the Rb 2 O content.

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