CLC number: TD925.9 Document code: A
Qibaoshan lead zinc mine in Jiangxi Metallurgy Group Corporation under the only colored lead-zinc mine. Lead and zinc mineral processing plant built in 1990 and put into production, the original design for the 250t / d sulfur full-scale lead-zinc flotation process to produce lead and zinc concentrates and other products and mixed. After many times of technological transformation, especially the successful implementation of the expansion and reconstruction project in 1994, the company successfully canceled the mixed concentrate and realized the recovery of sulfur, so that the technical and economic indicators of minerals such as lead, zinc and sulfur were continuously improved and broken. At present, the mixed flotation production process of 600t/d scale copper lead and zinc sulphur has become increasingly mature. However, the flotation separation of copper from mines has not been realized since it was put into production, and comprehensive copper recovery has been a problem of mineral processing that has plagued the mine for many years.
The average grade of copper and ore in the Qibaoshan lead-zinc mine is only 0.25%, and the flotation separation is difficult. It is a typical low-grade refractory copper. Since the establishment of the factory, it has carried out several mineral processing experiments, and the results are not ideal. On the basis of a more detailed understanding of the mineral properties of the ore, through the analysis and research on the copper and lead flotation production process of Qibaoshan lead-zinc mine in recent years, combined with the previous experiments and production, starting from the improvement of the floatability of copper minerals, A more reasonable and effective new process for copper and lead flotation. The results show that the copper-lead flotation process with priority float copper, Z-200 as the collector , sodium sulfide and sodium metabisulfite as the adjusting agent can obtain satisfactory technical and economic indicators: the main grade of copper concentrate is 18.09%, including Miscellaneous (lead + zinc) 14.05%, copper recovery rate 34.20%.
1. Ore properties
The Qibaoshan lead-zinc mine is a medium-temperature hydrothermal filling and metamorphic polymetallic sulfide deposit. Ore mainly chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, cobalt and nickel and a small amount of mineral siderite, white lead, zinc and other metallic minerals chabazite. The ore has an average copper content of 0.25%, cobalt of 0.04%, lead of 1.40%, zinc of 3.78%, and sulfur of 7.74%. The mineral inlay has fine grain size and complex symbiotic combination, and is a multi-metal complex refractory sulfide ore.
The copper mineral in the ore is mainly chalcopyrite. The size of the inlaid cloth is fine, and its granularity and physical property value is only 0.09mm, which is the smallest among the useful minerals. The symbiotic relationship with minerals such as lead, zinc and sulfur is very complicated, generally semi-self-shaped. He has a granular structure, which is often closely symbiotic with galena, zinc, sphalerite, pyrite, etc., and is intercalated; at least one-third of them are difficult to dissociate and difficult to recover. Object. Therefore, the comprehensive recovery of copper is extremely difficult.
2. Research on the current status of copper and lead flotation process
The copper-lead mixing process (Fig. 1) used in the actual production is a flexible process of using sulfite method to suppress lead float copper only when the copper grade in the final concentrate of copper and lead reaches a certain level. However, due to the poor floatability of copper, the separation of lead and zinc is difficult, and copper has not been effectively recovered. Therefore, in order to separate the copper from flotation, it is necessary to conduct a sufficient analysis and research on the current status of the copper-lead flotation process in order to find a new process.
Figure 1 actual production of copper and lead mixing process
The dotted line in the figure is a process in which copper recovery is performed only when the copper grade of the copper-lead concentrate is high.
2.1 Loss of copper in the production process
The analysis results of copper loss in recent years are listed in Table 1. The data in the table shows that the copper loss in each product shows a more balanced and scattered law.
2.2 Characteristics of flotation of copper minerals in production process
The production process of copper and lead flotation was investigated several times, and the results are shown in Table 2. The results show that copper is not effectively enriched in the copper-lead selection system, and the copper grade of each selected operation concentrate has a significant downward trend with the increase of the number of selections. The copper grade of copper-lead concentrate (lead concentrate) is only 2.38%; the recovery rate of each flotation operation is low. With the increase of the number of selections, the loss of copper minerals is more significant, resulting in copper recovery of copper-lead concentrate (lead concentrate) of only 24.90%. [next]
2.3 Analysis of current process of copper lead flotation
The actual production of copper in the ore grade is about 0.15%, which is far from the average copper content of the ore body of 0.25%, resulting in poor basic conditions for copper recovery in production.
The loss of copper in production shows a relatively balanced and dispersed law, which is consistent with the fineness of copper mineral inlay and the complex characteristics of symbiotic combination with other minerals, indicating that the technical separation of copper flotation is difficult and difficult to obtain. Technical and economic indicators.
In the current process, copper minerals are not enriched, and copper losses are fast and significant, indicating that the copper ore is poorly floatable, and the copper-lead minerals have little difference in floatability. In order to separate the copper minerals from flotation, it is necessary to enhance the activation of copper and improve the floatability difference between copper and lead minerals.
In summary, under the existing ore conditions, copper flotation separation is very difficult. The current copper-lead mixing process is not suitable for copper mineral flotation, and copper flotation separation cannot be achieved. It should enhance copper activation and enhance copper ore. The material can be floated, and the difference in floatability of copper-lead minerals can be increased to study the new copper-lead flotation process.
Table 1 Analysis results of copper loss in production in recent years / %
Table 2 Copper and lead mixed float production process inspection results / %
Job recovery rate
Copper Lead Select V
Copper Lead Select IV
Copper Lead Select III
Copper Lead Selection II
Copper Lead Selection I
Copper lead selection
Copper and lead
3. Experimental research
According to the results of the current copper-lead flotation process, the key to effective copper recovery is to improve the floatability of copper minerals and increase the floatability of copper-lead minerals. On the basis of fully studying the characteristics of copper mineral loss and flotation in the current process, according to the characteristics of copper mineral inlay, symbiosis and flotation, combined with previous production and testing, the copper-lead flotation process with priority float copper was selected for experimental research. , achieved satisfactory research indicators.
3.1 Grinding fineness test
The results of the grinding fineness test are shown in Table 3. The data in the table indicates that the grinding fineness is suitable for about 80% of -74Î¼m, which is basically consistent with the actual grinding fineness, which is beneficial to the on-site implementation of the new process.
3.2 collector type test
In order to increase the difference in copper and lead floatability, a selective collector for copper minerals was selected, and a variety of collector comparison experiments were carried out, mainly including butylammonium black drug, 25th black drug, Y-89. , Z-200, etc. The results show that the strong selectivity of Z-200 to copper minerals is very obvious.
Table 3 grinding fineness test results / %
Coarse concentrate grade
Crude concentrate recovery
3.3 adjuster selection test
In order to enhance the floatability of copper minerals, increase the difference in floatability of copper-lead minerals, and select a variety of agents that have activating effect on copper minerals, and at the same time have certain inhibitory effects on minerals such as lead and zinc. The test mainly includes sodium sulfide, sodium sulfide sulfate, sulfurous acid, sodium metabisulfite and the like. As a result, the effects of sodium sulfide and sodium metabisulfite are ideal.
On the basis of the selection and adjustment of the conditional test, the copper-lead flotation full closed-circuit process test of priority floating copper was carried out. The process conditions and flow of the test are shown in Figure 2, and the test results are listed in Table 4. The results of the full closed-circuit process test show that the copper-lead flotation process with priority float copper can achieve comprehensive recovery of copper, and the main grade of copper concentrate is 18.09%, containing (lead + zinc) 14.05%, and the recovery rate is 34.20%. index.
3.4 full closed circuit process test
Table 4 Full closed circuit process test results / %
4. Analysis of economic benefits
The current production scale of the concentrator is 180,000 t/a, which can be implemented under the existing equipment conditions. According to the average copper content of the original ore, 0.25%, the annual output of copper concentrate metal amount is 143.90t; copper concentrate is calculated by 1100 yuan/t metal; the cost of adding new chemicals is about 596,500 yuan/a, and the cost of electricity is about 115,200 yuan/ a; in addition to product sales costs, labor costs and other secondary cost conditions, can bring about 641,100 yuan / a economic benefits for the mine.
1. Using the copper-lead flotation process with priority float copper, the satisfactory grades of copper concentrate main grade 18.59%, miscellaneous (lead + zinc) 14.05%, recovery rate 34.20% can be obtained, so that the copper has not been determined for many years. The recycling problem can be solved, and the economic benefit brought about by this is about 641,000 yuan/a. [next]
2. The copper-lead flotation process does not have strong lead suppression measures, and is not strictly a priority flotation process, which is similar to the practical floatable process. Therefore, after implementation, the impact on the current lead-zinc sulfur production system is small. Although the main grade of lead concentrate in the research results is low, this is basically consistent with the lead-selected III concentrate index of the multiple process inspections on site. By appropriately increasing the number of lead selections, the production index of lead concentrate in the field is not up. questionable.
3. The copper in the Qibaoshan lead-zinc mine, due to its low grade, poor floatability, fine grain size, and complex symbiotic relationship with other minerals, it is very difficult to separate flotation. Therefore, although the research indicators have significantly improved and broken through the past, they are still not ideal. The flotation separation process technology of the copper mineral remains to be further studied.
4. The process technology of this research has accumulated quite useful experience for the comprehensive recovery of low-grade and difficult-to-select copper in complex polymetallic sulphide ore.
Figure 2 Full closed circuit test process conditions and processes
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